Chakma, often spelt Changma, are a tribal people native to Bangladesh. Inside their own community, the Chakmas refer to each other as Changma. The Chakmara are a subgroup of Mongols. The Daingnet are an ethnic group found in modern-day Arakan, Burma. They are thought to be a subset of the Chakmas. They also largely adhere to Theravada Buddhism. Biju is one of their most celebrated holidays, along with Buddha Purnima.
In Bangladesh, their population is greatest in Rangamati and Khagrachari. Bandarban is also home to a small number of Chakmas. Most of the Chakma people currently reside in the northeastern Indian states of Tripura, Arunachal, and Mizoram. In addition, many Chakmas today live in nations such as the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, China, South Korea, Australia, and Japan. Their primary source of income is agriculture. The Chakma cultivate a variety of cereal grains and legumes in the plains of the Chittagong Hill Tracts through irrigation and seasonal agriculture and in the hilly regions by jum farming. group The Chakmas refer to themselves as Changma when speaking among themselves. Chakmara is a subgroup of the Mongolian people. The Daingnet ethnic group residing in modern-day Arakan, Burma, is regarded as a subgroup of the Chakmas. And the majority of them are Theravada Buddhists. In addition to Buddha Purnima, Biju is one of their most cheerful celebrations.
Their number is more in Rangamati and Khagrachari of Bangladesh. However, Bandarban also has a small number of Chakmas. In addition, a section of the Chakma people lives in present-day northeastern India in Tripura, Arunachal and Mizoram states. Besides, many of the Chakmas are currently staying in different world countries, including the USA, Canada, United Kingdom, France, China, Korea, Australia and Japan. Their main livelihood is agriculture. The Chakma people produce various food grains and pulses through regular irrigation, seasonal agriculture in the plains of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, and jum cultivation in the hilly areas.
Each indigenous people has their own language, history, culture and traditions. In addition, there is diversity in their reading and weaving and clothing style.
Forty-five indigenous people are living in Bangladesh. The tribal population is about 15, lacks 87 thousand.
The indigenous people of Bangladesh make their clothes. Each of them has his loom in his house. They make very fine cloth with the help of a spinning wheel and loom. The raw materials for their textile industry usually come from cotton and natural materials grown in the Jum fields, but today market yarns and dyes are widely used. While men’s clothing is less patterned, women’s clothing has various colourful colours and patterns. The largest indigenous population of Bangladesh is the Chakma. Basically, they call themselves Changma. The Chakmads mainly live in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, i.e. Rangamati and Khagrachari.
The Chakmas have their own language, history, traditions, and culture. For example, the Chakma girl’s outfit often comprises two sections. Chakma women produce fabric on a loom called Bain. Pinone Hadi, woven with various designs and threads, is the traditional fabric of the Chakmads. The pinon is the lowest portion of the garment, which extends from the waist to the ankles, while the hadi is the upper portion. The pion is accompanied by a chibuki that is exquisitely crafted. These match Hadi’s blouse. They also read while standing on their heads. In the past, they wove this pinon-had from cotton grown in their jum fields, but today they also use yarn purchased from the market. The men of the Chakma tribe wear tonne hani, junnachilum, and dhotis, among other garments.
Biju is the Chakmas’ annual festival. Typically, this Biju is observed for two days. New Year’s Eve is known in their language as Phul Biju. On this day, all Chakma tribe members rise early to float flowers in the river for the benefit of everyone. In their language, January 1 is referred to as Mool Biju. On this day, Chakma tribe members rise early to get the blessings of their elders, then proceed to the hyonge (prayer house) to pray for everyone. On this biju day, they wear Pinon-Hadi, their traditional attire. In addition to Biju, people wear the traditional dress, Pinon-Hadi, on additional social and religious occasions, such as Cheebur Daan, Mahasangha Daan, and Buddha Purnima. They retain its design using Alam fabric. Chakma tribal girls wear varied-coloured pinon-Hadi.
Their primary colours are black and red, called Hala and ranga in Chakma. The cotton grown in the Jum field has extremely coarse fibres. The religious leader is presented with these cotton garments as a gift.