Symptoms of thalassemia
It carries oxygen to different parts of the body. This haemoglobin is made up of two types of chains: an alpha chain and a beta chain. Any of these problems can stop the body from making haemoglobin. As a result, the body makes haemoglobin which isn’t right. A normal red blood cell can live for 120 days. When red blood cells have deficient haemoglobin, they don’t live as long and break down more quickly. Because of this, the body ends up with anaemia.
There are two main types of thalassemia. Alpha thalassemia and beta thalassemia.
Most people with alpha thalassemia don’t get sick right away. Most of the time, the symptoms aren’t understood, and the person goes on with their normal life. But beta-thalassemia is what most people with thalassemia have. So again, there are two kinds of thrombosis. Carriers of thalassemia are people who have beta-thalassemia minor.
Most of the time, they don’t show any signs of thalassemia. But many people carry this disease without knowing it their whole lives. Sometimes mild anaemia occurs. Thalassemia Major is the other. If both parents have thalassemia, there is a 25% chance that their children will get thalassemia major. There is a 50% chance of becoming a carrier.
Most of the symptoms of thalassemia are signs of anaemia, such as tiredness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and so on. With jaundice, the skin turns yellow because the blood breaks down more quickly. Yellow urine is also possible. The size of the spleen grows. Also, the liver can get bigger. The density that isn’t stable can be lowered. The nose bones can be moved, which changes the shape of the face. The body can’t grow as it should. Every day, there are more problems.
There are also reactions to treating thalassemia, as these patients have to give blood frequently, and the level of iron in the body increases. This excess iron is stored in the heart, liver and pancreas.
As a result, excess iron builds up in the limbs. In addition, there is a risk of the patient becoming infected with a blood-borne infectious disease due to repeated blood transfusions.
There are also side effects to treating thalassemia since patients have to give blood often, and the amount of iron in the body rises. This extra iron is stored in the heart, liver, and pancreas. As a result, too much iron builds up in the limbs. Due to repeated blood transfusions, there is also a chance that the patient will catch a disease that is spread by blood.
To find out if someone has thalassemia, blood haemoglobin electrophoresis is done. Normal blood tests can show signs of thalassemia (CBC). DNA tests can also be used to find the disease.
Blood transfusions primarily treat thalassemia. If you have too much iron in your body, you’ll need to take an iron chelation medicine. Surgery is required to remove a big spleen. There will be fewer blood transfusions because of this. A permanent cure for this disease can be achieved with bone marrow transplantation. Another cutting-edge treatment is based on the use of genes.
What to do to prevent
Awareness is very important to prevent thalassemia. It is possible to reduce the rate of thalassemia by avoiding marriage between two carriers by testing blood before marriage. Likewise, marriage between relatives should be discouraged. In risky cases, fetal thalassemia can be diagnosed, especially on the advice of a doctor after the baby is born.